Essay on Compare and Contrast Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Combined Religion, Politics and Gender

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Middlebury College
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Religion is the act of belief and worship of a superhuman controlling power especially to gods. Often people have gods to help them in their time of needs (Carmona and Mahmoud 180). Egypt and Mesopotamia had many gods who were based on nature and this allowed them to consult different gods depending on the different needs at hand. Both civilizations ensued they maintain good relationships with their gods so that they could get the best harvests and hence have best chance of survival (Libyans and Persians 487). The gods of both Egypt and Mesopotamia played significant roles in the people, thus the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians ensured they appeased their good at all times.

Mesopotamia has been credited to be the origin of organized religion and Egypt started about five thousand years ago (Varberg Bernard and Flemming 170). In both areas religious systems had significant impact on the regions political systems. The governments were constituted by a blend of both politics and spiritual elements. Often the government ruling had to be inspired by spiritual elements. In such governments the deities were noted to be the supreme leaders whereby their wishes were interpreted by the political leaders so that the people could be ruled by the goddesses. The example in Egypt the Pharaoh was considered to be like a living god who was a vital link between the people and the rest of the gods. It was believed through the pharaohs reign the people would then to attain the blessings of god. Furthermore, both religions recognized the presence of many gods (Chazan, and Mark 30). Every god was tasked with a different responsibility, and the people used to consult the particular god depending on the situation at hand. Moreover, many of the god and goddesses had personalized elements of nature. Examples of gods were the goddess of war, god of fertility, god of storm and the earth, the moon god, the water god and the sun god. Many of the people at the time, therefore, had to ensure they ensure they please the relevant gods for them to get the desired help.

There was a significant different on the outlook of the god between the gods of Egyptians and those of Mesopotamia. In the Mesopotamia the gods were regarded as forces of nature that were very chaotic in nature. Therefore, the people had to ensure they kept them happy as they had the capability to cause disastrous and calamities. Thus, the gods were viewed as unpredictable being that had extraordinary power but they did not mean to use it for the good of the people. However, for the Egyptians the gods were seen to be filled with mercy, kind and generous (Chazan, and Mark 30). Therefore, the Egyptians were very positive towards their gods, in essence they believed Egypt was created to offer heaven for the people from the chaotic world. This noted as one of the biggest distinction in the peoples perspective of the supernatural world surrounding them. The Mesopotamians were offering sacrifices to their gods to ensure they cool of their anger and they did not have to deal with the punishment that accompanied the gods anger. The Egyptians on the other hand concentrated on ensuring their gods were happy and their sacrifices were more geared towards Thanksgiving and celebration in place of appeasing the gods.

Both the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians practiced cults religion with their deities. This practice was in different places at different times (Hatton, Andrew and Michael 1600). When the people tried to replace a god with another they were faced with calamities that affected them for a very long time. Therefore, the people had to ensure the appease all the relevant gods at a time. In the event there was a replacement of the gods, often the people would be forced to suffer for a long period. Many of the people believe, it was the gods who punished them for replacing their thrones and positions (Libyans and Persians 487). The gods were expected to bring some sense of order and justice. Moreover, the Egyptians were very keen on ensuring they had an opportunity for the afterlife. Therefore, most of their actions to appease the gods were all geared to ensure they gain the necessary favor needed for them to join the afterlife.

In conclusion, Egypt and Mesopotamia religions have both similarities and differences that make both religions unique. The identified similarities are that both religions have many gods; the gods had different influence on the respective culture governments and practiced cults. Some of the noted differences were, the Egyptians approached them gods from loving and caring approach and they did not necessary see their gods as beings who were destined to make their life miserable. The Egyptians believed in afterlife and this was one of the primary reasons that they ensured they made their gods happy and comfortable. Therefore, based on the noted differences and similarities, it is evident that religion plays a central part among the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians.

Works Cited

Chazan, Michael, and Mark Lehner. "An ancient analogy: Pot baked bread in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia." Paleorient(1990): 21-35.

Carmona, Salvador, and Mahmoud Ezzamel. "Accounting and accountability in ancient civilizations: Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt." Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 20.2 (2007): 177-209.

Hatton, Gareth D., Andrew J. Shortland, and Michael S. Tite. "The production technology of Egyptian blue and green frits from second millennium BC Egypt and Mesopotamia." Journal of Archaeological Science 35.6 (2008): 1591-1604.

Libyans, Assyrians, and Persians Ethiopians. "EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA." The Babylonian World (2007): 487.

Varberg, Jeanette, Bernard Gratuze, and Flemming Kaul. "Between Egypt, Mesopotamia and Scandinavia: late bronze age glass beads found in Denmark." Journal of Archaeological Science 54 (2015): 168-181.

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