Essaay on the Aztecs Under Spanish Rule

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Wesleyan University
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Article review
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The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule is a book authored by Charles Gibson. It studies the progression of the old relationship between the Inherent Mexicans and Spaniards in the Colonial Latin America intensely. The excerpt chapter covers such topics as politics, land use, religion, settlement patterns, and social structures. The author intends to explore the lifestyle of the ancient Aztecs. Dwelling too much on the overall impact of suppression by the Spaniards over the once Aztecs is biased.

The primary sources that aided in comping of this work include but not limited to Alcaldes Rotation by Gibson; Chimalpahin, Annales; and Bentura Belena, Recopilacion sumaria. The listed sources among others have made it possible for the author to outline the events that took place during that time of Aztecs.

Gibson has contributed in connecting pieces that illuminate this region with Aztecs historical path. However, the shortcoming of the book lies in the fact that it lacks narration. The people and other related circumstances are not lively portrayed. Moreover, the author has not achieved an elegant combination of the primary source which ought to produce a more human-related story. Scholars who have interest in this area need to conduct further studies and provide solutions to the weaknesses highlighted above.

The Rise And Fall Of Indian-White Alliances

Steve Stern is the outright author recognized to have put together the content of this particular article. He takes an expansive view of the history of the territorial conquest in India. The authors intend to sightsee the ancient history of the relations that existed between the Indians and Spanish in Huamanga highland located in the earlier Inca empire. The entire narration revolves around rivalry among many ethnic groups in Huamanga. The author is biased in basing his study strictly on a small geographical location other than the whole Indian nation.

The author acknowledges a myriad of sources from which he solicited information that enriched his understanding of the topic. Among the references include Formiiaciones econ6micas y politicas del mun-wdo anclino by John. Also, the Spanish Peru and The Men of Cajamarca both by James Lockhart have been recognized. However, it casts doubts upon the readers. Any future research needs to exhaust this topic by covering a relatively larger geographical area to reach a convincing conclusion.

The Nahuas After The Conquest

The author of this book is James Lockhart. His primary intent in this study is to provide an overview of the cultural and social life of Mesoamericans as from the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. Some little biases appear to emanate from the fact that Lockhart confines his focus only within a particular aspect, that is, the social relations among the people in the area of study.

The primary sources used are majorly based on Nahuatl language. They are legal documents and transient forms of artistic expression. Among the sources are Karttumens Nahuatl in The Middle Years; Clines Culbuacan Testaments and The Tlaxcalan Actas by Berdan and Lockhart. The author succeeds in composing the Spanish New indigenous inhabitants founded on both Nahuatl accounts and Spaniards.

As a matter of contribution, Lockharts findings reveal the similarity between the New Spain and Mexican regime. He also sheds light on the avenues that were employed by the Nahuas in maintaining their traditions. Contrary to the commendable contributions, the authors approach is a drawback on its own. His work is sourced heavily from some old documents of the pre-conquest period. Further studies should be conducted within the scope of a considerable historical period, not as extremely old as such.

Indian Lords, Hispanic Gentlemen

Peter Villella wrote this article. He intends to explore the early Indian history regarding their traditions in the pre-conquest and post-conquest periods. More specifically, the author dwells on the Hispanic culture and their way of leadership. The article is biased in the sense that it bases its focus majorly on the rulers who are the minority while giving little attention to the majority ordinary people. So many source documents have been acknowledged by the author to have facilitated greatly piecing together his ideas. The mostly appreciated source above all is a collection of family papers done by Salazar (1674 - 1794).Villella manages (his contribution) to consolidate a convincing argument on the impacts of the Lords rulership on the Hispanic culture. The drawback of this article, however, lies heavily in its ambiguity. The author lacks clarity on aligning his ideas throughout the document. Such issues should be addressed in the future studies for efficient relay of information to the readers.

Guarani Kinship And The Encomienda Community In Colonial Paraguay

The author of this article is Shawn Austin. His primary intent is to provide a new way of viewing the relations in Paraguay during the colonial period. The document, in my analysis, is on-point; there are no obvious biases identified.

The primary sources that guided this work include numerous notarial records, most of which the author claims he collected from the Asuncion National Archives (Paraguay) and the Indies Archive in Seville. The author manages to contribute immensely in this field by shedding light on what exactly transpired during the colonization of Paraguay. However, the article only covers social aspects. Therefore, further studies should focus on other issues such as the religion in Paraguay during the colonial period.


Austin, Shawn Michael. 2015. "Guarani Kinship And The Encomienda Community In Colonial Paraguay, Sixteenth And Early Seventeenth Centuries." Colonial Latin American Review 24 (4): 545-571. doi:10.1080/10609164.2016.1150039.

Gibson, Charles. 1965. "The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History Of The Indians Of The Valley Of Mexico, 1519-1810". The American Historical Review 70 (4): 1145. doi:10.2307/1846960.

Lockhart, James. 1993. "The Nahuas After The Conquest: A Social And Cultural History Of The Indians Of Central Mexico, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries.". Sixteenth Century Journal24 (3): 762. doi:10.2307/2542169.

Stern, Steve J. 1981. "The Rise And Fall Of Indian-White Alliances: A Regional View Of "Conquest" History." The Hispanic American Historical Review 61 (3): 461. doi:10.2307/2513394.

Villella, Peter B. 2012. "Indian Lords, Hispanic Gentlemen: The Salazars Of Colonial Tlaxcala." The Americas 69 (1): 1-36. doi:10.1353/tam.2012.0060.

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