The Patriotic Society: Discussions and Omissions about Indians in the Peruvian War of Independence is an article authored by Charles F. Walker (1998). The writer uses various sources to analyze the reasons why the indigenous population, mainly, the Indians were not fully incorporated into the Peruvian State. In this regard, most of the sources employed by the author tend to focus more on the negative factors that led to the exclusion of the Indians ideologies and culture from the Peruvian Society. For instance, the Indians are portrayed as an impoverished, wayward, and inferior community that did not deserve to be integrated into the society (Walker, 1998). Moreover, the prevalent poverty in their community is blamed on their listless temperament, laziness, and drunkenness nature (Walker, 1998). In other words, the writer focuses more on the negative characteristics of the Indian culture, rather than the positive contribution of the Indian population within the society.
The author uses secondary sources including journals, books, and scholarly articles, to obtain relevant information for the article. In this regard, the article expands on the ideas of other scholars to contribute to the subject in question. That is to say, and it highlights some of the important factors that led to the exclusion of the indigenous people from the Peruvian society, thus informing the reader of the historical events that resulted in this exclusion, particularly, for the Indian community. In this case, I do not detect any errors of fact or interpretation on the intended subject of the article. I would, however, recommend future research on the positive impact or major contributions of the indigenous people of the Peruvian state to avoid being biased.
The second article entitled, Customs and Rules: Bourbon Rationalizing Projects and Social Conflicts in Northern Potosi during the 1770s, has been written by Sergio Serulnikov. It examines how the emerging project of the colonial hegemony was negotiated and performed at its most concrete level. It also evaluates how subaltern groups challenged and engaged state power. The Author focuses more on the Northern Potosi region because it was one of the key centers of rebellion during the general Andean insurrection in the early 1780's (Serulnikov, 1999). Additionally, the region is suitable for an inquiry into social repercussions of changes in the state system of domination (Serulnikov, 1999). In this regard, the article employs the use of secondary sources including both archival and printed materials to support the topic under discussion.
The article contributes to the field by informing the audience and providing more information regarding the causes and impact of social conflicts in Northern Potosi during the 1970's. For instance, it shows how the Bourbon reforms represented not only a cause of financial hardship but also political opportunities and expectations (Serulnikov, 1999). Besides, the new hegemonic project of political centralization in the region resulted in both vertical and horizontal widespread of power struggles. In this case, there are no any errors of fact or interpretation based on the information presented in the article. On the other hand, more research is needed to expound on the author's ideas for comprehension purposes.
Rebellions in Late Colonial Spanish America: a Comparative Perspective, by Anthony McFarlane, the author tries to identify the similarities and differences between the rebellions that took place in the 17th and 18th century in the late colonial Spanish America (1977). In this case, the article focuses more on the four large, cross-class uprisings that opposed the government at different places and time during this era. He uses various sources including journals, books, and archived materials, to obtain and analyze relevant data for the article. In other words, the information in the article can be used to inform other scholars, particularly, those who are interested in learning the historical events that led to the development and collapse of the Spanish empire. Additionally, it can be useful to individuals who are interested in the wider phenomena of rebellion and revolution that took place in the late-eighteenth century. In this regard, the article makes major contributions to the historical field.
The article focuses more on the rebellions that took place in the 17th century compared to those that occurred in the 18th century. In other words, only a small portion of the article talks about the events and rebellions that took place after the 17th century. That is to say, and more research is needed to highlight the comparisons of the rebellions that occurred between the 18 and 19th century to have a clear perspective of the events that took place during this era and avoid any form of biases. Additionally, the author does not present his ideas in a logical and flowing manner and makes it tedious for the reader to follow the text. For instance, there are numerous grammatical errors and a mix up of tenses, which makes it hard for one to comprehend some of the points presented in the article. In this case, future researchers should consider their intended audience and present their ideas in a manner that is easy to comprehend.
Information and Disinformation in Late Colonial New Granada, is authored by Rebecca Earle. It seeks to answer several questions regarding the Late Colonial New Granada. For instance, the author would like to know whether the press and newspaper were latecomers to the revolution in the viceroyalty of the New Granada. The author desires to know how information was disseminated within the viceroyalty in the absence of a developed press, what it means to speak of the widespread of news in a Late Colonial Granada Society, among other significant questions (Earle, 1997). In this case, the writer uses both primary and secondary sources to collect and analyze data. Moreover, the article is presented in a neutral manner such that the author does not appear to be biased in her analysis. In other words, it addresses all aspects of the subject in question.
The article addresses all the questions that the author intended to answer concerning the Late Colonial New Granada. For instance, it highlights the fact that spoken word was more dominant in the late colonial and Independence era New Granada, compared to the written word (Earle, 1997). Moreover, the constant circulation of rumors and political gossip were a clear indication of political engagement by New Granada inhabitants, despite the absence of a developed press.In this case, the article contributes to the field by providing additional information regarding the subject matter through in-depth analysis of other significant sources from different scholars. In other words, the information provided in the article can be used by other scholars or learners to expound on the subject or gain more knowledge regarding the New Granada. The author does not commit any errors of fact and interpretation and presents her ideas in a clear and logical manner. More research can, however, be conducted to address some of the questions raised in the article efficiently and generate more insight on the author's position.
Earle, Rebecca. "Information and disinformation in late colonial New Granada." The Americas 54, no. 2 (1997): 167-184.
McFarlane, Anthony. "Rebellions in late colonial Spanish America: a comparative perspective." Bulletin of Latin American Research 14, no. 3 (1995): 313-338.
Serulnikov, Sergio. "Customs and rules: Bourbon rationalizing projects and social conflicts in northern Potosi during the 1770s." Colonial Latin American Review 8, no. 2 (1999): 245-274.
Walker, Charles F. "The Patriotic Society: Discussions and Omissions about Indians in the Peruvian War of Independence." The Americas 55, no. 2 (1998): 275-298.
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